Tag Archives: analysis

Ad Analysis: Media Resources

In ENG 131, we’re beginning a unit on advertising. Students are analyzing advertisements and how they rely on/reproduce social norms and stereotypes. Working with outside sources is a requirement for this project; this post includes links to the resources listed on the assignment sheet.


Song Analysis: Playlist

Our third major assignment in ENG 131 is a Song Analysis that asks you to assemble a playlist for a specific purpose and then analyze how each part (in this case, each song) contributes to the whole. Analysis is tough, but it’s a skill you’ll need in school and beyond, and it’s a skill you likely already possess. Here, we’re finessing that skill in an academic context, but as you can see from the chapter in your textbook, analysis is something you do every day.

We’ll continue working on analysis for the rest of the semester. This assignment asks you to create something to analyze. The next assignment, an ad analysis, invites you to analyze an advertisement and how it contributes to the gender binary (and why that might be problematic). You’ll actually be writing a persuasive essay there, but the analysis skills you practice here will be a necessary part of that assignment as well. The last assignment we do before the Final Portfolio is an Annotated Bibliography, which brings us back to this assignment in terms of the parts-to-whole relationship: you’ll be mapping and documenting sources across different types of media that speak to a topic of interest to you.

Analysis generally involves five common elements:

  • A question that prompts you to take a closer look
  • Some description of the subject you are analyzing
  • Evidence drawn from close examination of the subject
  • Insight gained from your analysis
  • Clear, precise language (206).

What do these elements look like when applied to a playlist?

A question…

Recently, a friend of mine made me a mix CD. I grew up with mixtapes (I remember getting my first boombox and it had a dual tape deck so I could burn cassettes and CD’s-to-cassettes all day long! I could even record myself singing along!) and as a teenager and in my twenties, mix CD’s were pretty common. Fast forward to 2017, however, and I was gifted a CD with no way to play it. My computer doesn’t have a disc drive, my car doesn’t have a CD or a cassette player, and I no longer have that boombox. Eventually, I figured out that my PS3 could play CD’s, and I was able to listen to the music that way. Listening to the music was an emotional event; I knew that my friend, who lives far away, had spent a lot of time choosing songs that he thought would speak to my interests and my experiences: in the previous year, I had lost my dad, left an unhealthy relationship, started a new job, spent my summer outdoors, and was (am) wrestling with the election and now the Trump administration’s agenda and how it may impact my future. The playlist my friend made for me was deeply personal, and I felt that from the design of the case to the songs he chose and the order in which I listened to them. Knowing that he made that playlist for me, with me in mind, prompted me to take a closer look, to understand the connections he saw between each song and my life, and even how the songs themselves spoke to each other. The CD is called “the thing with feathers: a mix for 2017.” I asked my friend why he picked that name (a Google search tells me it is a line from an Emily Dickinson poem, and also the title of a book by Noah Stryker, and also the name of a novel by Max Porter!), he says it was “essentially an abstract connection to” the Emily Dickinson poem.



Photograph of a handmade CD jacket. The left side has the playlist title, "the thing with feathers: a mix for 2017." The right side lists the names of the songs.
A photo of the CD jacket my friend made for me.



You might decide to make a playlist that is also reflective of your own personal struggles or growth. Or, you might have a particular cause in mind: songs for undergoing chemotherapy, songs to combat Islamophobia, songs for the gym, songs for surviving a two-hour commute home from work, songs that explain what it’s like to be a person of color, songs that explain white America, songs for fishing with your dad. This could be a playlist for you, or a playlist for someone you love, or even a playlist for someone you’ll never meet. 8tracks.com is a site where users can create and share playlists; you might find inspiration there: a few of these include Hipster Yoga, Lumberjanes 1: Fox Fight Jams (this is the official playlist for the first issue of the comic), and Scholarly Rhymes.

The question prompting you to take a closer look isn’t a yes/no question, but rather a question without a correct response: what can I make a playlist for? What would it include? Notice the questions outlined in your book: What? Which? How?

Some description…

Not all playlists on 8tracks have descriptions, but when they do, I find it especially helpful to see a note from the creator explaining why they put it together. You’ll need to give some description in your essay: if you’re making a playlist to go with a book you love, you might give a brief summary of the book and share your rationale for the playlist you’ve created. If you’re making a playlist for a friend, think about what you might want to tell them: what inspired you to choose these songs? Why are you making them the playlist in the first place? If you’re making a playlist for a cause, give some background information about that issue.

Evidence drawn…

Because you are creating the subject (the playlist), you’ll probably already be thinking about the key elements (songs and/or parts of songs), patterns (common features, characteristics, or themes in these songs), and relationships (how these songs connect to form a whole). Each element of your playlist contributes to the whole; each song carries some part of the overall message you are trying to convey. In other words, this isn’t just a random assortment of songs you like, but a purposefully and thoughtfully designed playlist with a particular outcome in mind. In order to discuss these parts, you’ll need to be specific. You might discuss the lyrics, genre(s) of music and its history, artist information, the beat, tempo, style, and mood of the songs, the instruments or technology used to produce it.

Usually, when we analyze texts, we’re analyzing work that someone else produced (themes in a novel, language in a speech, subliminal messaging in an ad). In this case, you’re analyzing something you’ve created using someone else’s material, so while some of the evidence lies within the songs themselves, you might also discuss your own choices to work with the material in the way that you did: why did you arrange the songs in the order that you did? Why 5 songs instead of 10? Why these artists? Why this genre? Why this beat/tempo/style/mood/instrument/technology?

Your book outlines a few common types of analysis: rhetorical, process, causal, and data; we’re hanging out in the rhetorical section: how does this thing communicate?

Insight gained…

This has to do with the “why bother?” part of analysis. Why analyze a playlist? To what end is this useful? Why should anybody care about the songs on a playlist? There are two points I want to touch on here:

  1. Music can teach us about people and society. Song lyrics are texts, and we can study their emotional impact and social commentary. Music is also more widely “used” or consumed than articles and novels: many of you don’t read novels on a regular basis, but I know you listen to music.
  2. Learning to recognize and to write about the parts of something that contribute to a whole in order to communicate a particular message is a transferrable skill that you’ll use in a variety of disciplines, from identifying the multiple factors contributing to a health condition in order to provide a diagnosis or develop a treatment plan, to recognizing grammatical patterns in learning another language so that you can apply them to new structures, or even understanding the complex layers of our political systems so that you can contribute to a democratic society by voting and by speaking up when justice is not served.

When you think about the insight gained from analyzing a playlist that you created, it might seem silly: how can you gain insight from analyzing something you made? What you might look at here is the bigger picture: why might a playlist be valuable? What might it contribute to the listener’s understanding of an issue? How might it benefit them to know how all of the parts fit together? Likewise, you can also evaluate the success of your playlist: what is missing? What is left out? How could it be made better? These questions will come up in your self-assessment, so you may choose to answer them in class rather than in the essay itself.

Clear, precise language…

I’m going to quote from your book here because their words are spot on: “Since the point of an analysis is to help an audience understand something, you need to pay extra attention to the words you use and the way you explain your findings.” Use language that your audience will understand (you don’t need to sound scholarly, but remember that you are writing to a college-educated audience), and use words that point to specifics. Words like “things” and “stuff” and “good” and “really” don’t present a clear picture of what you mean. You also want to be sure that the language you use is culturally sensitive: avoid stereotypes about gender, religion, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability; some of these we have internalized and it can be difficult to unlearn ways of expressing ideas that might be considered offensive. Review the “How to Write Good Sentences” chapter in your textbook (p. 668) for some advice on sentence composing, and we’ll look at “What’s Your Style” in class (p. 641) together.

EXTRA CREDIT: Very rarely do I offer extra credit opportunities, but this invitation can act as a bridge from textual/rhetorical analysis to visual analysis, which we’ll do with advertisements later on. Most playlists, whether digital or burned onto a physical CD, come with some sort of case, booklet, or cover art. If you are feeling especially creative, and want to play with visuals in order to further support the message or purpose you are aiming for with your playlist, make some cover art to accompany your album. Up to 5 extra credit points are available; this needs to be submitted with your final draft either digitally or as a hard copy, with a brief note explaining your rhetorical choices.

Reading Protests

How do we “read” protests? Museums are collecting signs from the Women’s March on Washington as well as those from sister events all over the world, Facebook’s live video feature brings the chanting to your own device allowing you to watch from anywhere, news stations report on these events with headlines like this one from the Detroit Free Press: “Thousands gather at DTW, around Michigan to protest Voldemort’s* ban.” Our textbook, Everyone’s An Author, includes photos from a student-led protest against low wages paid to campus workers (7) and of a Black Lives Matter protest with a caption that reads “Protestors use posters, raised fists, and more to communicate their positions” (6). Here are my own photos from yesterday’s protest at DTW and two from the Women’s March on Lansing:

Protesters standing outside in the snow at DTW holding signs offering support to immigrants and refugees.Protesters standing outside in the snow at DTW holding signs offering support to immigrants and refugees.My daughter at the protest at DTW catching snowflakes on her tongue.One protest sign reads Protesters standing outside in the snow at DTW holding signs offering support to immigrants and refugees. One sign reads
My friend Laura and I holding our signs at the protest. Mine says
A woman dressed up as a vagina at the Women's March. Her costume is pink and made of a feather boa, gemstones, and fabric. She is wearing a black Afro on her head and is holding a sign that reads Signs from the Women's March on Lansing. One reads
Yesterday, this image was circulating on Facebook:


I shared it. Because I do not yet have tenure, which means that I lack the protection that some of my colleagues who have fulfilled their duties to earn tenure can fall back on, I have to be especially judicious in what I choose to share in the classroom and how. Unfortunately, I can’t come in and say “fuck Trump.”*** Fortunately, I teach writing, and part of writing is reading, which means we can talk about how to read these events – the artifacts, the rhetoric, the process of organizing, the role that communication and new media plays in mobilizing individuals and communities, the grounds on which they form and what they respond to, and that allows us a platform to explore and critique the messages we are fed, and the opportunities we have to participate.**

In ENG 131, I’m working on revising our song analysis assignment to include a greater variety of media and to emphasize the people responsible for creating that media; in other words, who was that person, what did they do, and why was it effective? I want to bring protests into our work because they are rich for rhetorical analysis: how do people decide what to put on signs? Which signs are most effective (which signs make it into photographs? Which signs are most memorable? Do signs have an impact on elected officials? Who are the signs for?)? What makes a well-organized protest, rally, or other similar event? How do people choose to make their values and beliefs visible? Who has access to these events? Who participates? How are these events written about in the news? Does it differ depending on the news source and their bias or relationship to the event itself and/or its sponsors? 

In ENG 132, we’re going to read Muriel Rukeyser’s “Book of the Dead,” which was originally meant to be performed as a radio documentary. This unit is framed in two ways: one, as an example of the second use of literature we’re talking about (knowledge), and two, as a means of reading critically, making connections, and establishing context. For the workers in BOTD, silicosis literally took their voices away. Because they were black in 1930’s America, they had little authority in court, and their representatives were all white men. Students will have an assignment in two parts: an annotated section of the poem that branches outward to illustrate context, and a transmediation that pairs the poem with another text, song, work of art, or film and puts them in conversation. We’ll talk about witness, a term used here to refer to our obligation as individuals and as communities to respond (Rukeyser would say that poetry demands a “total response”) when we encounter predjudice or discrimination, acts of violence or hate crimes, and/or systemic issues that oppress a group of people – something that we encounter in real time now thanks to new media and how quickly footage circulates. What kind of response is owed? What does it look like? Is clicking “like” or “share” sufficient? What action is appropriate? What is sufficient? What do you do when you feel powerless? How do you learn more?

Texts are not the only media we read. We read video, we read action, we read advertisements, we read music. Reading, as we’ve discussed pretty extensively in ENG 131, is a rhetorical act. It is purposeful, it varies depending on genre and use, and it is an active process that now more than ever requires you to dig in and around and beyond the initial document. I’m looking forward to working on these assignments this semester; I’ve done them before (or variations of them), but I think the current social and political climate in our country will make for an interesting next few months. That feels like a gross understatement, actually, but I’m being smart here and also trying to keep my head above water. 

*I installed the Chrome extension called Trump To Voldemort because I can’t bring myself to use his name. My daughter calls him Turd, I’ve heard people use “45,” and “President Electoral,” but I just…I’m not there. Voldemort gives me some hope, because I know from the Harry Potter series that good triumphs over evil, and that there is power even among divided houses (Gryffindor couldn’t have won the Battle of Hogwarts without Slytherin!).

**In the middle of writing this, my next-door office neighbor met with his Honors student; they are working on a project that provides a historical overview of protest music, and I’ve jumped on board. So excited to see what comes out of it! All the playlists! I loaned her my copy of Of Poetry and Protest, it’s a book I picked up last semester that I have yet to sit down and read all the way through. 

***I also want to reiterate here that I am not in the business of pushing anybody toward any political platform. All views get space so long as those views a) do not oppress or attack anyone, and b) can be backed up with evidence. This is a big part of what we do in composition courses. We talk about argument. We analyze texts. We evaluate evidence and learn to be media literate. We also LISTEN to one another (we covered this on Day 2 of ENG 131) before making judgments. We do not treat argument as war. We make sure to practice inclusive, intentional position-taking, including positions of resistance. Language can be violent. I am not in the business of violence. I am, however, in the business of teaching young people to step up when needed, step back when it’s someone else’s turn, and most importantly, to challenge and critique the systems that we participate in. On that note, I probably shouldn’t say “fuck Trump,” but we’re talking about the meme, here. Also, Pioneers Press makes good stuff.